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List of Honey Bee Forage Species within Region 11 for the State of MD

Ordered by Begin Bloom Month

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USDA codeFamilyLatin NameCommon NamePlant TypeBegin Bloom MonthEnd Bloom MonthSig
STELLCaryolphyllaceaeStellariaChickweed, stitchwortF112N
SYFOAraceaeSymplocarpus foetidusSkunk cabbage, polecat weedF25N
TAOFCAsteraceaeTaraxacumDandelion, blow-ballsF210N
ALNUSBetulaceaeAlnus Mill.AlderTDB25N
PRPE3RosaceaePrunus persicaPeachTDB, C25N
RUBUSRosaceaeRubusBlackberryS, C36Y
SALIXSalicaceaeSalixWillow, osierTDB36N
PRAVRosaceaePrunusCherry (cultivated)TDB,C35N
ILEXAquifoliaceaeIlexHolly, yauponTEB36N
FRAGARosaceaeFragaria _ananassaStrawberryF45N
MELILFabaceaeMelilotusSweet clover (white/yellow)F410N
TRRE3FabaceaeTrifolium repensWhite, dutch cloverF410Y
TOXICAnacardiaceaeToxicodendronPoison ivy, oakS47N
LITUMagnoliaceaeLiriodendron tulipiferaTulip tree, poplar, whitewoodTDB46Y
PRAVRosaceaePrunusCherry (uncultivated)TDB45N
ROPSFabaceaeRobinia pseudoacaciaBlack locust, false acacia, yellow locustTDB46Y
CILALCucurbitaceaeCitrullus lanatuswatermelonC58N
CUCURCucurbitaceaeCucurbita L.Pumpkin, squash, gourdC59N
CUMECucurbitaceaeCucumis meloCantaloupe, muskmelon, casaba,C58N
ASCLEAsclepiadaceaeAsclepiasMilkweed, butterfly flowerF59N
MONARLamiaceaeMonardaHorsemint, wild bergamot, bee-balmF59N
FAES2PolygonaceaeFagopyrum esculentumBuckwheat, brankF, C510N
RHUSAnacardiaceaeRhusSumac, sugar bush, lemonade berryS58Y
TILIATiliaceaeTiliaBasswood, lime tree, whitewoodTDB57Y
CUSA4CucurbitaceaeCucumis sativuscucumberC69N
BIDENAsteraceaeBidensSpanish needles, beggar-ticks, bur marigold, stick-tights, pitchforks, tickseedF610N
GLYCIFabaceaeGlycineSoybean, soja beanC710N
AGASTLamiaceaeAgastacheAnise hyssop, blue hyssopF79N

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Plant Type codes:

Sig column

      T    - tree
    TDB - tree, deciduous broadleaf
    TEN - tree, evergreen needleleaf
    TEB - tree, evergreen broadleaf
      S    - shrub
    SEB - shrub, evergreen broadleaf
    SDB - shrub, deciduous broadleaf
      V    - vine
    VDB - vine, deciduous broadleaf
      G    - grass
      F    - forb (herbaceous flowering plants, non-woody)
      C    - crops/cultivated
   This column indicates whether or not the species is considered a very important nectar source species within the state and region selected. If it is a significant source, it is indicated here with a 'Y' and the row is highlighted.

In this context, important is defined by Ayers and Harman as those species that "reliably produce a large percent of the harvested honey" within the selected region.


 For those wishing to see more detailed information about any species in the list, please visit the USDA PLANTS Database web site and search by any of the first three columns from the table.

This output was derived from content created by Ayers and Harman, and published as Chapter 11 "Bee Forage of North America and the Potential for Planting for Bees" from the book The Hive and the Honey Bee, 1992, Graham, J. ed. Dadant and Sons Inc. Hamilton, Illinois.
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Last Updated: February 1, 2024